Medicinal plastic, as its name implies, is the plastic used to cure the disease, which is the biggest difference between it and medical plastics used mainly for instruments and packaging. At present, most of the plastics that can be used for medicine are derived from bio based polymer materials, mainly natural bio based polymer materials. After proper treatment, processing and modification, the plastics are made as pharmaceutical plastics.
At present, medicinal plastics can be roughly divided into 4 parts:1) external application: plastics as carriers, such as plastic mosquito repellent tablets and plastic external pain relieving tablets; plastics itself is an important component of medicine, such as chitosan wound care dressings and polyvinyl alcohol eye drops. 2) take medicine: plastic as a carrier, such as fenofibrate tablets; plastic itself is an important component of the drug, such as chitin capsules. 3) artificial organs: such as plastic blood and artificial liver. 4) health care products: such as protein powder, dietary fiber.
The following examples illustrate some of the medicinal plastics that have been used in the medical clinic and health care.
1. Polyvinyl alcohol and Polyvinyl Alcohol Eye Drops
The products of PVA series are white solid, three kinds of external flocculation, granular and powdery. They are non-toxic, tasteless and pollution-free, and can be dissolved in 80--90 C water. Their aqueous solutions have good adhesion and film-forming property. Polyvinyl alcohol is the only vinyl polymer that can be used as carbon source and energy by bacteria at present. Under the action of bacteria and enzyme, polyvinyl alcohol can be degraded for 75% days in 46 days. It is a biodegradable polymer material.
Different from the level of chemical pharmaceutical grade polyvinyl alcohol polyvinyl alcohol, it is a kind of organic polymer is safe, non-toxic, no side effects on the human body, has good biocompatibility, especially in medical applications, such as the application of water gel in Ophthalmology, wound dressings and artificial joints, at the same time in the medicinal film, polyvinyl alcohol film artificial kidney membrane were used.
Dry eye is a kind of disease caused by the instability of the intima and the damage of the surface of the eye caused by the quantity or quality of the tear, which causes the discomfort of the eyes. Because polyvinyl alcohol is a high molecular polymer with hydrophilic and film-forming property, it can act as artificial tears at suitable concentration. Topical application can improve ocular surface humidity and lubricity, eliminate eye discomfort, and thus play a role in the treatment of xerophthalmia. Polyvinyl Alcohol Eye Drops is the first artificial tear that is closest to human body in China. It is a new drug approved by the State Administration of Drug Administration for many years in clinical research by experts from the national ophthalmic drug production base.
2.chitin plastic and derivatives of chitosan plastic
The chitin and chitin capsule
Chitin, chitin, is the second largest biological resources on earth after plant fiber. Most of the chitin in nature is always closely combined with the insoluble inorganic salts and proteins that are insoluble in water. In order to obtain chitin, the shells of crustaceans are often prepared by chemical or microbial methods. At present, chemical method is often used in industrial production. After acid and alkali treatment, calcium salts and proteins are removed, and then the soluble chitin is removed by using strong base to remove acetyl under heating conditions.
A kind of chitin capsule sold on the market
Chitin capsule made of chitin can help eliminate the body of harmful substances, it is very important for the adjuvant treatment of cancer patients, can eliminate the anticancer drugs on the body caused by cell toxicity, the toxicity can cause different degrees of bone marrow suppression, nausea and vomiting caused during the treatment of patients with cancer and abnormal liver function at the same time, chitin can slow play organ injury. Strong protective effect on human organs.
In addition, chitin capsule can reduce blood pressure and improve insulin utilization. It is very suitable for patients with diabetes, liver and kidney diseases, hypertension, obesity and other diseases. It is an ideal medicine to help treat diseases and improve quality of life. For example, the main effect of the modified chitin capsule is to inhibit the tumor, prevent diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, and regulate the dietary rules.
The speed of a Shu chitosan and chitosan medical wound protecting liquid dressing
Chitosan is a derivative of chitin after removing acetyl from strong alkaline water. Chitosan and other natural bio based polymer blending plastics such as chitosan, chitosan and cellulose composites, can be used in the production of packaging materials, agricultural plastic films, seedling pots and other products; chitosan and starch blend composite film production of insoluble in water, high tensile strength, can be used for food packaging.
It is composed of chitosan, lactic acid, ethanol and purified water, which is a colorless or yellowish liquid. The isolation membrane sprayed on the wound after a breathable moisture can be absorbed by the body, can protect the wound and form a moist environment, with anti leakage, anti adhesion, hemostasis, prevent infection and promote wound healing, so it is suitable for small area skin trauma and postoperative wound care.
3.protein plastic and protein powder
Protein plastics is currently one of the most widely used natural polymer based polymers in the field of biodegradable materials. It is a new topic to prepare protein and plastics as renewable resources, and prepare biodegradable and biocompatible environment-friendly materials.
The main function of protein powder is to correct the protein malnutrition, which is mainly suitable for large area because of trauma, burns, skin ulcers, major surgery, tumor radiotherapy and chemotherapy cause severe loss of protein in the body, the negative nitrogen balance of patients; can also be used for anorexia nervosa, functional dyspepsia.